1. Water Content

where ,
W_{w} = Weight of water
W_{s} = Weight of solids
Note – There can be no upper limit to water content i.e. w≥0
2. Void Ratio

where ,
V_{v} = Volume of voids
V_{s} = Volume of solids
Note – though size of individual void of coarse grained soil is more , total volume of voids in fine grained soil is more
in general case there is no upper limit for void ratio . i.e. e>0
3. Porosity

where ,
V_{v} = Volume of voids
V = Total Volume of soil
Note – 1. Porosity cannot exceed 100% i.e. 0<n<100
2. in comparison to porosity , void ratio is more frequently used because volume of solids remains same , whereas total volume changes
4. Degree of Saturation

where ,
V_{w} = Volume of water
V_{v} = Volume of voids
Note – 1. Range of Degree of saturation. 0≤S≤100
2. For perfectly dry soil – S=0
3. For Fully saturated soil – S=100%
4. Air Content

where ,
V_{a} = Volume of air

where S_{r }= Degree of saturation
5. Percentage Air Void

where ,
V_{a} = Volume of air

5. Unit Weight
(A) Bulk unit Weight (γ)
Bulk unit weight is total weight per unit volume

(B) Dry Unit Weight (γ_{d})
Dry unit weight is the weight of soil solids per unit volume

Note – Dry unit weight is used as a measure of denseness of soil . more dry unit weight means more compacted soil
(C) Saturated Unit weight (γ_{sa}_{t})
Saturated unit weight is the ratio of total weight of fully saturated soil sample to its total volume.

(C) Submerged Unit weight or Buoyant unit weight (γ^{′})
Submerged unit weight is the ratio of submerged weight of soil solid per unit volume
